Liquid Asset is a product of the Great Lakes Commission's Transportation and Economic Development Program and was prepared at the request of its eight member states.
Acknowledgment is in order for Steve Thorp, Program Manager and principal author of this report, as well as Rita Straith for production support and Karen Cogsdill for cover design. Kathleen Burke, a research associate supported by an Ameritech Foundation grant, contributed to the report. The Great Lakes Commission also appreciates the cooperation of the individual companies profiled in the document and the contribution of the report's Advisory Committee (see last page for listing).
Michael J. Donahue, Ph.D.
Historically, the appeal of the Great Lakes region for industry location has been attributed in part to the availability of ample and reliable water supplies for manufacturing and other activities. However, water quality requirements for manufacturing and recreational use are also becoming important, particularly as the regional economy evolves and the industrial base diversifies. Many processes require a high level of water quality -- a level that the Great Lakes are able to provide. Water use in categories such as food processing, electronics, optical equipment, new materials manufacturing, medicines/pharmaceutical and biotechnology are examples. Tourism and outdoor recreation activity with a connection to the Great Lakes is an important part of the regional economy and also depends on clean water. The Great Lakes water resources have played a pivotal role in the development of the binational region but their protection and wise use are equally important for enhancing the region's quality of life.
This report addresses the importance of water to the Great Lakes economy. Water quality issues as they relate to industry use of fresh water are a primary focus. Five specific uses of Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River water are examined. These profiles were developed based on interviews with industry experts, plant personnel and information from a questionnaire. The Great Lakes Commission has prepared Liquid Asset as a promotional tool for those involved with business expansion, retention and recruitment. Access to the region's principal fresh water resource translates into a comparative location advantage for industry. At a time when water reallocation has gripped water-short areas of the country, the water-rich Great Lakes region can employ its incomparable natural resource and tap its promotion potential for economic revitalization.
In the development of the Great Lakes region, water was not just important; it was the most important factor for guiding settlement and creating an agricultural and industrial base. The Great Lakes and their tributaries provided sustenance and a means for trade among the native peoples. Europeans used these routes for exploration and commerce. A growing seaboard population and the influx of immigrants spurred westward movement toward the Great Lakes.
The natural water routes and canal links channeled territorial expansion, and with it came the underpinnings of economic development. The passenger and freight network distributed people and goods throughout the waterway system. Localized services for shore communities gradually expanded to support larger markets and hinterlands. The first major "gateway'' cities in the region began as ports, such as Montreal, Cincinnati, Toronto, Pittsburgh, Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago, Milwaukee, and Minneapolis-St. Paul. When the railroads came, they connected the cities of the water-based transport system.
An early dependence on water characterized these developing cities of the North American interior. The major settlement period of the Great Lakes region coincided with the rapid development of industrial technologies and processes. Proximity to productive agricultural land and access to important raw materials, coupled with an available labor force, gave the region an unparalleled advantage in domestic and overseas markets. Direct application of water power had a more limited role in the Great Lakes cities compared with places inland. It was water transportation that was the foundation of shore-based manufacturing and related activities. Water-intensive industrial operations, whether located on the waterfront or nearby, were a natural result of water availability. In many cases, the waterborne shipment option for raw material delivery and movement of finished goods was a major locational determinant.
One of the first major water-connected industries to make use of the Great Lakes was logging and sawmilling. Gigantic log rafts were moved around the system. Coal made its way overland to the eastern Great Lakes ports and from there was distributed by vessel for heating and, later, steelmaking and electricity generation. Massive movements of iron ore from northern Minnesota and Michigan to lower Lakes steel mills, and grain flows to eastern flour mills, made the Great Lakes transportation system the busiest in the world for many years. These commodity movements materialized in response to the developing continental industrial base that was concentrated in the Great Lakes region.
The regional steel industry is a good example of a basic industry's water connection. The Great Lakes' proximity to the major supplies of iron ore, coal and limestone - the raw materials of the steelmaking process - was a major reason for the steel industry's concentration in the region. The high volume of these low value inputs favored maximum use of efficient lake vessels. The rail mode for some coal and ore movements played a complementary transshipment role. Lakefront steel complexes were established at Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Hamilton,Sault Ste. Marie and along the lower Lake Michigan shoreline in Illinois and Indiana. Several inland plants also rely on lake-hauled materials. Current Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River shipments of raw materials for both the U.S. and Canadian steel industry are more than 100 million tons annually. Clearly, in addition to transportation advantages, water is an important part of the steelmaking process.
Steel production has historically been a water-intensive industry. Water is used for different purposes, including cleaning and cooling operations for both product and equipment. Most of the industry's water requirements are self-supplied. In the United States, gross water use for steelmaking reached a peak in 1973 at 25,000 mgd (million gallons per day) when U.S. production amounted to 150 million tons. At the large integrated mills with blast furnaces, an average of 15,000 gallons of water is used per ton of hot metal produced, whereas electric furnaces dependent on scrap as a raw material, need only 2,600 gallons for each ton of steel. Current U.S. steel production is in the 90 to 95 million ton range and, with a shift of more production to electric furnaces and minimills, intake water withdrawals by this sector have declined by more than 50 percent. Another major reason for reduced water needs is the greater reliance on recycling partly driven by water quality discharge regulations and cost of effluent treatment. The use of water varies considerably among mills with "process water'' compared to cooling water ranging between 25 and 40 percent. Water quality requirements for mill operations are not unusually stringent with some finishing processes an exception. The steel industry's historic tie to the Great Lakes region remains with more than 75 percent of North American production; half of U.S. and Canadian steel consumption; and a substantial amount of total freshwater withdrawals for industrial use.
The binational Great Lakes regional economy is changing. It's "Industrial Heartland'' description still applies, even though substantial diversification has resulted in a relative decline in manufacturing's share of total employment on the U.S. side of the border. The eight Great Lakes states and the province of Ontario have similar shares of manufacturing employment at around 21 percent, which is higher than their respective national figures. In 1990, manufacturing employment in the Great Lakes states was 6,774,700 or 35.4 percent of the national total. For Ontario, the 966,000 manufacturing jobs accounted for nearly 50 percent of all such positions in Canada. Global trading patterns and a trend toward manufacturing decentralization have contributed to the changes in the region's manufacturing sector. However, the strong presence of certain industry groups remains a hallmark of the region. Based on historical development and an agglomeration effect (business benefits derived from geographic proximity of firms), the Great Lakes region has a high concentration of "metal bending'' producers as well as technology intensive industries such as chemicals, machinery, instruments and electronics. Almost all manufacturing activities require the use of water and, for some industry groups, it is a critical part of the manufacturing/production process. The industry-water connection for the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region is well established and will remain important as the manufacturing sector evolves. Water quantity and quality issues, as they relate to the region's industrial base and level of infrastructure investment, will increasingly become important for business location decisions and firm recruitment efforts.
Water is used in countless ways. For most purposes there is no substitute. Quantity and quality factors are often intertwined in many water use situations and, for this reason, a degree of interdependence between them is present. Industry use of water is broad-based and intensive. With the inclusion of agriculture, navigation and electricity generation, an "industry use'' category represents most of the water use in the U.S. For example, hydroelectric power production, as an "instream'' use, accounted for 10 times the amount of freshwater withdrawals for all "offstream" uses combined in 1985. Navigation, the other leading industry instream use, is critically dependent on water levels for vessel draft but total water use is not conducive to measurement. For the broad industry use category, two uses, agriculture and thermoelectric power production, comprised in 1985, four-fifths of total U.S. freshwater withdrawals or 275,000 million gallons per day. Fresh water for all major use sectors including agriculture is mainly supplied from surface water sources (78.3 percent in 1985). The availability of fresh water from lakes, reservoirs, and rivers has been and will continue to be a major location determinant for most high volume users.
One substantial category of industrial water use is manufacturing. Industrial processes use water for washing/cleaning, cooling, dilution, product movement and incorporation into products. Manufacturing withdrawals are less than 10 percent of total freshwater withdrawals. U.S. Bureau of Census data for 1983 (latest available) indicate that industrial water use for manufacturing is concentrated in five major sectors: steel production, food processing, petroleum refining, chemicals/allied products and paper and related products. Three percent of the nearly 358,000 U.S. manufacturing firms accounted for more than 95 percent of such water use. The degree of concentration of water use is further illustrated by the fact that only 10 percent of the plants in the five manufacturing sectors accounted for 99 percent of the water use. For the five sectors, gross water use was about 92,700 mgd. Of that amount, less than a third or 27,500 mgd was classified as "intake." U.S. Geological Survey data for 1985 indicate that for manufacturing as a whole, freshwater withdrawals combined with public supply deliveries were more than 28,000 mgd. Two-thirds of this amount was attributed to self-supply from surface sources.
Total water use by manufacturing industries in the U.S. peaked in the late 1970s at about 122,000 mgd. For intake and discharge quantities, a manufacturing use reduction was first indicated in the late 1960s. This declining level of water use by the manufacturing sector, when evaluated on a per unit of production basis, actually began during the 1950s; the 1983 level was one-fourth of that in 1954. Changes in production levels for particular products, technological changes in manufacturing processes, cost reduction efforts and compliance with environmental regulations are the principal reasons for the downward trend in water use. The reuse of water as a means to control discharge treatment costs and more efficient use of existing heat (thus less cooling water demand) have been principal measures affecting water use. According to Census data, manufacturers have dramatically increased water recycling. Most industry groups, with food processing a notable exception, almost doubled recycling rates between 1954 and 1983. The petroleum refining sector, where three-quarters of withdrawals are for cooling, has the highest rate of recycling.
Industry water withdrawn in Canada for 1986 (latest year available) is dominated by thermoelectric power production as it is in the United States. According to Environment Canada, such use accounted for 60.2 percent of the 42,210 million cubic meters (MCM) of total annual water use. The next largest categories of water intake were: manufacturing - 7,983; municipal - 4,711; agriculture - 3,559 and mining - 593 (all MCM). Manufacturing water use in Canada is concentrated in five sectors: paper and allied products; primary metals; chemical/chemical products; food; and refined petroleum and coal products. These industrial groupings accounted for 94 percent of intake and discharge and 89 percent of consumption in 1986. Gross water use, reflecting a high rate of recirculation, is about double the intake amount for manufacturing as a whole. The paper and allied products sector in Canada, a leading industry, had a gross water use of 6,008 MCM which was twice as much as any other manufacturing category. The amount of water use attributed to recirculation was 2,979 MCM, clearly reflecting the industry-wide recirculation rate. Other sectors, though, indicate widely varying recirculation rates. For example, food processing intake was nearly four times its recirculation amount and, for refined petroleum and coal products, recirculation was more than double the intake level. As is the case in the U.S., water reuse by Canadian manufacturers contributed to a substantial decrease in water intake for the period of 1981-1986; intake levels declined by 1,952 MCM from a high of 9,936 MCM. In Canada, manufacturing operations rely extensively on self-supply from fresh surface water sources - 83 percent in 1986. This degree of dependence is considerably greater than that for the United States. Surveys show that smaller establishments are more likely to obtain water from public supplies, indicating that location decisions for large volume users are based, in part, on water access.
The Great Lakes states' water resources are world-class. With major rivers, adequate precipitation and the Great Lakes, the region accounts for more than 90 percent of the United States' supply of fresh surface water. The Great Lakes themselves hold 6 quadrillion gallons of fresh water or 20 percent of the earth's surface supply. It is not surprising, given the historical industrial development of the Great Lakes region and its abundant water supply, that industry use of the fresh water in the region is more intensive than for the U.S. as a whole. Table 1 indicates that industry (manufacturing) use of fresh water in the Great Lakes states in 1985, as a percentage of total freshwater withdrawals for all categories of use is substantially higher than that for the U.S. (12.8 percent to 8.3 percent respectively). The eight Great Lakes states account for 39.45 percent of U.S. industrial water use and Indiana, Pennsylvania and New York are ranked one-two-three in the country. Industry reliance on surface water sources is also greater in the region than nationally. As for industry's consumptive use of water, the difference between the U.S. and region figures is significant. Such use accounts for only 11.7 percent in the Great Lakes states whereas for the U.S., it is nearly 15 percent.
In the Great Lakes region, the heaviest concentration of water intensive manufacturing is located within the Great Lakes Basin (see Figure 1). The advantage of a dependable and bountiful water supply found in the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence System has kept this historical industry-water linkage intact to the present day. Table 2 presents Basin industry water use data for 1990 from the Great Lakes Regional Water Use Data Base Repository housed at the Great Lakes Commission. This data is shown for combined manufacturing and mining use of water in seven Great Lakes states (Michigan data not available) and for the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. Manufacturing's share of the combined use category is the predominant use of such water in the Basin. For the seven states, Great Lakes water satisfies more than three-quarters of total industrial demand in the Basin -- 76.6 percent. In Ontario, the degree of dependency is even more pronounced at 84 percent. When St. Lawrence River supplies are considered, the percentage increases to 89 for the combined hydrologic basins. Indiana and Michigan are the top states for industry water use in the Great Lakes Basin and Ontario, with a level of 2,058 mgd, has the largest jurisdictional use.
Water is one of the most abundant chemical substances in nature, a liquid oxide of hydrogen that sustains plant and animal life on earth. This vital resource of the "blue planet" exists in many different natural states with varying physical and chemical properties. Salt water compared to freshwater is a major distinction. Turbidity, hardness, pH and dissolved solids are examples of "conditions" of fresh water. However, just as natural systems have certain water quality requirements, so do certain manufacturing processes and industry activities. The words industry and water quality have not always mixed well. Public attention has been focused for years on industrial effluent and land-use concerns that have principally caused or contributed to degraded surface and ground water. Outside of food processing, where water quality is an obvious concern, public awareness of the role that water quality plays in industrial processes is limited. Plant managers and business location specialists do recognize water's importance for, in many cases, their particular enterprise depends on water that meets certain quality criteria.
Water quality requirements for industry differ significantly over the broad range of industrial operations. Such requirements usually depend on how water is to be used: for boiler feedwater, cooling, processing or sanitary purposes. For example, a survey of an industry grouping comprised of fabricated metal products, machinery, electrical and transportation equipment indicated water usage at such plants: process water - 25%; boiler feed and sanitary - 34%; steam electric generation- 13%; and cooling, condensing and air conditioning - 28%. In many manufacturing plants, varying production processes and product mixes will entail the full spectrum of water use. Specific water quality requirements have been identified for many industrial uses with maximum and/or range values. Such water quality considerations are particularly important at point of use as distinguished from point of intake. This fact has shaped much of industrial water use practice.
Generally, modern water treatment technology can condition water for specific uses at relatively low cost. Water intake and treatment costs have historically been small line-items in company budgets and still represent a fraction of overall production and marketing costs. But water treatment costs are increasing for chemicals and equipment and, with the dramatic increase in water recycling, more intensive treatment has been necessary. Also, water needs for high-technology industries have been increasing, reflecting growth of a sector where high water quality is required. Global competition in many product areas is forcing North American companies to cut business costs. The quality characteristics of an available water supply are becoming more important to industry than ever. Access to raw water with quality characteristics more nearly approaching the composition required is becoming a key production advantage for industry.
General manufacturing plants usually have higher water quality requirements than do basic industrial operations (e.g., steel and petroleum refining) for most of their water needs. The amount of water needed for process purposes is substantially greater, as are recycling rates, in general manufacturing industries compared with other industry sectors, where cooling needs can be more important. As a general rule, higher product value translates into higher water quality requirements. Water quality conditions that can cause the most problems for manufacturing processes are turbidity, hardness, high or low pH and dissolved solids (minerals). Deposits, scaling, abrasion and corrosion are the consequences of the use of such water, particularly for hot water and steam applications. Although these conditions can be dealt with through conventional treatment technology, costs increase considerably and optimal results are more difficult to achieve when intake water is of poor quality.
Another industry sector where water use and high water quality requirements are important is food processing. With respect to canning, freezing and drying fruits and vegetables, water is involved at nearly all stages of production. Washing of the product and equipment, conveyance of product and inputs, incorporation into the product, cooling and boiler use are the major uses. Food processing brings about complex physical changes and chemical reactions in the product and therefore control of process water chemistry is very important. Various substances in process water can affect taste, texture, odor, color, vitamin content, shelf life and other product characteristics. Bacterial content is also a consideration and treatment for pathogens is essential for process water. Baby food manufacturers have special quality requirements for particular chemical substances - fluoride and nitrate levels must be lower than for other foods.
The following section includes "profiles" of five specific uses of Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River water where the quality of that water offers a locational advantage to industries over other regions. Four are manufacturing plants engaged in specialized paper production; vegetable processing; film, photographic chemical production and an array of other products; and corn refining for sweeteners and cornstarch products. The other profile describes the Lake Erie walleye fishery and its contribution to tourism and outdoor recreation sectors. These examples of industry use of water in the region were selected to represent the geographic breadth of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River System and to examine water use in important industry sectors that have advanced technology processes and good prospects for continued growth. Information for each manufacturing profile was obtained through a questionnaire and interviews with plant management.
Headquarters: Duluth, Minnesota
Total Employees: 345
Total Sales (1991): $120 million
Products: Supercalendered paper
In November 1987 the $400 million Lake Superior Paper Industries paper mill began operation in Duluth, Minnesota. This world-class mill uses 3.2 to 3.5 million gallons of water per production day. Water, which is delivered to the plant from the municipal water supply, is a critical input for the manufacture of supercalendered paper (SC). This kind of paper is a high quality, lustrous product that has been "polished" and is used in advertising fliers, inserts, catalogs and magazines.
The Lake Superior Paper Industries (LSPI) mill is a joint venture between two Minnesota companies, Pentair Inc. and Minnesota Power. As a way to diversify its operations and improve the Duluth area economy, Minnesota Power, an electric utility, teamed up with Pentair, a paper and industrial products concern and Duluth economic development officials to plan the major manufacturing facility. A 92-acre site in West Duluth was identified as an ideal location for the mill. An adjacent idle power plant to supply steam to the mill, along with excess water and sewer capacity and a skilled work force, were important factors in the decision process. Now, more than 300 people are employed in the mill.
The market for SC paper had been growing about 20 percent annually since 1977 but has accelerated in the last few years. When LSPI was under construction, 65 percent of domestic consumption of this kind of paper was met by imported product. New demand though, has been LSPI's principal market. Sears Roebuck and Co. is a major LSPI customer with SC paper accounting for half of all paper used in advertising by the company. In 1988, 38 percent of LSPI paper was sold in the Midwest. The paper mill was built to accommodate two additional paper machines that would more than double production from the 243,000 tons per year capacity of the existing machine.
The manufacture of pulp and paper is dependent on an abundant supply of high quality water. As a general figure, it takes nearly 200,000 gallons of water to produce a ton of high quality paper. Water is used in the processing of raw wood into pulp and as a medium for further preparatory processes including slurry feed for a paper machine. Boiler use and waste flow are additional uses. Water for high quality paper should have low turbidity and little color. Also, hardness and dissolved gasses are undesirable properties.
Another water connection for the paper and pulp industry, though an indirect one, is wood supply and forest growth. Transportation costs require that a paper mill which relies on raw wood be relatively close to its wood source. Within a 200-mile radius of Duluth, the abundance of balsam and spruce tree species is sufficient to supply the 160,000 cords per year needed for the paper machine. Also birch wood chips are used to fuel the power plant boilers to produce steam for the paper mill. The logs from the forests represent a harvest of a renewable resource, one with present and future potential to help sustain an evolving regional economy. Without adequate precipitation, this area of the Upper Midwest could not sustain coniferous forest growth that makes paper production at Duluth possible. Total employment related to the operation of the mill is around 2,000 people.
Water is important to the success of LSPI because supercalendered paper has a very sensitive chemistry. Specific needs include balanced pH, low turbidity and a favorable mineral content, all of which are characteristic of Lake Superior water. LSPI does not use raw water from the Lake but receives "finished" water from the municipal water authority. This water is subject to standard treatment including sedimentation and filtering. The inflow water for LSPI represents about 15 percent of the daily amount pumped by the city. Lake Superior Paper is the largest water customer in Duluth. Unused capacity, because of a prolonged downturn in the local economy, permitted LSPI service without the need for additional pump or treatment capacity. If additional paper machines are installed and other city demand increases, expansion of the water delivery system will be likely.
The paper making process at LSPI gains water volume from the logs introduced into the pulping process. This water offsets the small amount of consumptive use and results in a relative balance between inflow and outflow. A 300,000 gallon reservoir at the mill helps regulate water usage during production. Ninety percent of all influent comes into contact with the product via the Voith Duoformer paper machine. It forms wood fiber, water and additives such as talc and dye into a continuous sheet. Most paper mills prepare wood pulp by cooking it with sulfur and other chemical compounds. However, at LSPI, the process involves pressure grinding the pulp rather than cooking it. Less water is used with this method and pollution problems are also reduced. However, the plant does import bleached kraft pulp from Canadian suppliers. About one-half ton of kraft pulp is used for every ton of LSPI pulp. A planned paper recycling facility at the plant will help reduce the amount of purchased product. Dioxin, a chemical pollutant associated with kraft pulp, has not been detected in LSPI effluent. Following its use, the plant's production water is sent to the Western Lake Superior Sanitary District plant after it passes through an 800,000 gallon clarifier for initial treatment.
The Lake Superior Paper Industries facility in Duluth, Minnesota represents state-of-the-art technology and an industrial development success for northern Wisconsin and Minnesota. The paper mill was well-matched with available raw material supply and product market demand. Abundant water from Lake Superior through the municipal water system was a critical factor in the selection of the mill location. The general high quality of the water is also an important part of the paper-making process. Lake Superior Paper, as the largest industrial water user in Duluth, demonstrates that new large scale users of Great Lakes water can be both major manufacturing as well as environmentally responsible enterprises.
Headquarters: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (H.J. Heinz Company)
Total Employees: 35,500
Total Sales (1991): $6.6 billion
Product Areas: Tomato products, baby food, soup, vinegar, pickles, beans, pasta, infant cereals, pet food, frozen dinners and foods
The H.J. Heinz Company of Canada, Ltd., a subsidiary of H.J. Heinz Company, has operated a major food processing factory in Leamington, Ontario since 1908. The Leamington facility uses about 1.6 billion imperial gallons of water per year. About 40 percent of the plant's water needs are self-supplied from an intake and pumping station on the shore of Lake Erie. Outside of a small amount of well water, the Heinz plant's other water supply source is the municipal system (eight communities) which also draws from Lake Erie.
The Heinz Leamington facility is not only the largest water user in the local area but also the largest employer. Eight hundred people work at the plant year-round and another four hundred are employed during the peak tomato harvest-processing season, which runs from late July to mid-October. The plant produces two hundred food products in eight hundred varieties. Tomato products including the company's famous ketchup line are the mainstay of the production. Contract growers deliver 225,000 tons of tomatoes to the plant during the summer, giving Leamington its sobriquet "Tomato Capital of Canada." Other products include soups, baby food, beans, pasta, pickles, vinegar, infant cereals, and barbecue sauce. Two production routines characterize the plant - a steady state process centering on tomato paste processing and a batch system where "kitchen canning" and sterilization takes place throughout the year. These foods, representing 80 percent of Heinz Canada sales, are primarily marketed in Canada but the small amount shipped to the U.S. may change when the full effects of the U.S. Canada Free Trade Agreement take hold.
The Heinz Leamington plant requires a large amount of water for various production processes. The three water supply sources each contribute in a specific way to plant operations. Lake Erie water is brought to Heinz via a privately-owned facility. The Heinz lake pump house operates seven pumps and the intake pipe runs for 1,700 feet to a depth of 30 ft. Lake water is useful as a process tool, rather than as an ingredient in the finished product. Its primary uses are for spinner coolers, boiler feed water and for condensers. Water for these purposes must be clean enough so that the outside of product containers are not stained and that process equipment is not damaged through fouling. Water taken directly from Lake Erie is accessed at a low cost of $.10 per thousand imperial gallons. Costs are incurred primarily in the electrical energy to pump the water and chlorination at the intake well. No further treatment is needed, as no lake water is in contact with the food products. Demand for this water is seasonal. About 70 percent of annual lake water intake occurs during the late summer-early fall period. Twelve to eighteen million gallons of water are used daily during these months, the busiest time of the year at Heinz. Lake water consumption decreased from 702 million gallons in 1982 to 635 million gallons in 1987. In contrast, municipal water use rose considerably over the same period - a gain of 366 million gallons - but now has fallen in recent years due to conservation projects. Heinz also uses about 10 million gallons of self-supplied well water due to the advantage of a constant temperature of 55 degrees F. The well water is only used in vinegar generators for cooling purposes. Although only one well is available, the construction of additional wells is being considered.
The majority of Heinz's water supply comes from the Union Water System owned by eight communities and Heinz. The water treatment and distribution system is operated by the Ontario Ministry of Environment which offsets its expenditures through charges to the nine users. Built in the late 1960s, the Union Water System makes available 14.2 million gallons daily. Heinz accounts for 30 to 35 percent of the system's annual water demand. All of the water comes from Lake Erie via a 54 inch intake pipe.
At the Union Water facility, water is first strained to remove microscopic algae and then sent to an up-flow clarifier where polymers, activated carbon, and liquid alum are added. Next it is chlorinated, sent to rapid fan filters, and then post-chlorinated. Once Heinz receives its supply, additional chlorination takes place. Except for that water which is used in kitchen operations and previously sent through carbon filters, this is the only additional treatment required of the Union water at Heinz. This water is used primarily for the sterilization, cooling and condensing of products. As a large, reliable supply source of high quality water, the Union Water System is very valuable to Heinz. Purchased at $.45 per thousand imperial gallons, about 20 million gallons of Union water actually become part of Heinz foods each year. If inferior water were used, it could result in the loss of product due to spoilage. According to Ken G. Campbell, Manager, Utility Services and Environmental Control, "Our water and product are one in the same. There is minimal tolerance for impurities." Water used for indirect cooling of products is returned to Lake Erie. Water which is contaminated with product or waste products is discharged to the Heinz Pollution Control Plant for treatment before being returned to Lake Erie.
Food processing is one industrial sector that has an absolute requirement for pure, high quality water. Also, large quantities of water are often required for equipment cooling purposes and raw product preparation. The Leamington, Ontario factory, which has served Heinz for over 80 years, was built initially to process tobacco but its access to Lake Erie water signaled to H.J. Heinz its long-term suitability for food processing. The plant continues to be a primary economic development asset for this area of Ontario and its quality production helps keep Heinz brands among the leaders in their respective markets.
Lake Erie Water Surface Area: 9,906 square miles
Drainage Basin Area: 22,720 square miles
Lake Erie Shoreline: 871 miles
Lake Erie Angler Days: Estimated at 18 million (1985 - U.S.)
Annual economic impact of Lake Erie sportfishery and commercial fishery estimated at $600 million
The walleye is a major game fish in the Great Lakes, accounting for a third of total angler days. The western half of Lake Erie, according to many anglers, supports the best walleye fishery in the Great Lakes and perhaps the world. The economic impact of the Great Lakes sportfishery ranging from equipment to trip-related expenditures is significant and a substantial part of the coastal economy. Improving Lake Erie water quality has played a major role in the successful walleye fishery, and the Lake's fish populations provide one indicator of overall ecological conditions and pollution control practices.
The Great Lakes are considered the center of distribution of the walleye throughout its North American range. The walleye is most successful in mesotrophic water (moderate amount of nutrients) with relatively low turbidity and a temperature range from 60o to 80o F. The Western Basin of Lake Erie is a major walleye breeding and nursery area with its abundance of shallow rocky and rubble reefs nearshore and mid-lake. Tributary rivers were once major spawning areas, but pollution, sedimentation and other physical disturbances have limited their role over time.
The Lake Erie commercial and sport walleye fisheries have had different histories. Commercial fishing began around the beginning of the 19th century as human settlement gradually increased along the shores. Fishing improvements with more sophisticated nets and practices resulted in larger catches, but periodic walleye population swings occurred, partly influenced by fishing pressure, water quality degradation and changes in forage species populations. The total walleye harvest has fluctuated from an all-time high in 1956 (nearly 7,000 metric tons) to an all-time low in 1969 (216 metric tons). In the beginning of the 1970s, a two-year lake-wide ban on the commercial harvest of walleye because of mercury contamination helped rejuvenate the fish population. Ohio and Michigan did not reopen the commercial fishery after the ban and in 1976 a successful walleye quota management system among the Basin states and Ontario was implemented. Ohio and Michigan meet their quota through their sport fisheries. Pennsylvania has a small commercial fishery with only a few operators. For Ontario, the commercial Lake Erie walleye catch in 1988 was 7.4 million pounds valued at $13.1 million (CAN).
Sport fishing for walleyes in Lake Erie has become a major recreational activity over the past two decades. The Lake Erie walleye population has grown substantially from that of the mid-1970s. For example, in the Western Basin, walleye numbers have increased from less than 5 million to the 20 to 40 million range during the 1980s. As a result, the fishery has created a Lake Erie fishing boom and a strong marine trades industry. State and federal surveys indicate that angler hours have doubled from 1970s levels.
The Lake Erie charter fishing operations in Ohio have responded to the overall improved fishing by increasing from just 25 in 1975 to more than 700 by 1986. A 1985 study by Ohio State University researchers showed that, during the previous year, the fishery generated in Ohio 2,421 man-years of employment, $116 million in sales and $41 million in personal income for state residents. The federal quinquennial fishing survey indicated more than 1.3 million anglers fished Ohio, Michigan and Pennsylvania's Lake Erie areas in 1985, accounting for 18 million days of fishing, with walleye the principal pursuit. About 10 percent of the anglers were non-residents.
Water quality has a direct impact on walleye populations and the fishery experience. Over the last twenty years, Lake Erie water quality has greatly improved. Intensive agriculture, along with urban and industrial development in the Basin, resulted in water quality degradation. Phosphorus and nitrogen contamination, primarily through agricultural runoff and sewage effluent, promoted algal growth to the point where massive algae decay severely depleted oxygen levels and decimated some game fish populations. The construction of waste-water treatment plants and some control of farmland erosion have reduced total phosphorus loadings to Lake Erie from a high of 28,000 metric tons in 1968 to the current level of 13,000 tons per year. The target annual phosphorus load set by the International Joint Commission (IJC) through an Annex to the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement is 11,000 metric tons per year.
Persistent toxic substances have also impacted water quality and impaired reproduction efficiency as well as induced genetic defects in fish. Input of pesticides, heavy metals and PCBs is declining in Lake Erie but their persistence (particularly in sediments) has created a long- term problem. Fish consumption advisories in varying degrees of stringency are applicable for game fish in Lake Erie. However, because of relative low fat levels, walleye do not bioaccumulate these toxics to the extent that other fish do, particularly trout and salmon. The walleye is sensitive to changes in water quality and the IJC's Science Advisory Board has recommended the fish should be used as an indicator of quality for cool, mesotrophic waters throughout the Great Lakes system.
Another issue that pertains to water quality and the walleye fishery is the zebra mussel, a small bivalve mollusc. This nonindigenous species was introduced via ballast water from an overseas vessel in the mid-1980s and has colonized in Lake Erie and spread to all other Great Lakes and many tributaries. The mussel is expected, by some experts, to affect walleye populations in several ways. Rapid buildup on hard surfaces including rocky shoals can interfere with walleye spawning. Efficient filtration (one liter per day per mussel) will reduce plankton, disrupt the food chain and increase light penetration, thereby affecting walleye movements. Also, decaying mussel beds can result in oxygen depletion. Control strategies are currently a major priority.
All things considered, Lake Erie water quality has improved dramatically in recent years and all users of the resource are benefiting accordingly. The sport fishing and allied marine trades industry including marinas, boat sales and charter fishing operations are directly tied to water quality. This recreation sector continues to improve in terms of economic impact and future potential. Although Lake Erie has nurtured walleyes for hundreds of years, continued vigilance on pollution control and fishery management will be necessary to keep the distinction "Walleye Capital" in the region.
Headquarters: Rochester, New York
Total Employees: 134,000
Total Sales (1991): $19.6 billion
Product Areas: Photographic and consumer products, information systems, chemicals and health
Kodak Park is a manufacturing facility of the Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, New York. This 2,200 acre administrative and manufacturing complex has 20,000 employees and is a major industrial water user. Kodak Park uses approximately 13 billion gallons of Lake Ontario water every year, or about 35 million gallons daily. Daily water usage can be as high as 53 million gallons per day during the summer due to increased refrigeration and cooling needs. Nearly all of Kodak Park's water is self-supplied. Only the drinking supply is obtained from other sources. Also, no well water is needed, as Lake Ontario provides more than enough water to accommodate demand.
Since 1890, Lake Ontario water has been an important factor in the success of Kodak. Kodak Park relies on Lake Ontario water not only as an abundant source of water, but also one that is clean and versatile. Scientists and engineers at Kodak acknowledge that high quality source water is essential for the efficient operation of ultrapure water systems. Ultrapure or very high-purity water is essential for the manufacture of many of Kodak's products including film, paper and other photographic supplies, synthetic organic chemicals, bioproducts and clinical products.
Kodak Park water has multiple uses, the largest being in Utilities Division operations, including cooling tower make-up and feed water to deionization systems for boilers. Major uses in the manufacturing areas include paper-making operations, cooling jacket/temperature control, washing, cleaning and miscellaneous process water supplies. Water used for product applications requires further purification to meet individual user needs. Users with more stringent requirements are served by a common high-purity water system. Some on-site process systems designed specifically for a given product are also used.
Approximately 15 percent of all water pumped to Kodak Park is not returned to Lake Ontario. Little of this consumption goes directly into product. Main losses are through cooling towers. Water which passes through process steps is collected and sent to the Kodak-operated wastewater treatment plant before discharging into the Genesee River, a tributary of Lake Ontario.
Water for industrial use at Kodak Park is pumped from Lake Ontario 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Water delivery is through two intakes, both of which lie 55 feet below the surface and 6,000 feet offshore. At the company's Lake Station Plant, the water is treated to separate out particulates through a system of precipitators and sand filters that employ hard-crushed coal as the filtering agent. Further industrial grade preparation involves low-cost chlorination. Along with cleaning and cooling, this industrial grade water is also used to supply Kodak's privately operated fire fighting system. From this pumping station, Lake Ontario water is transported to two large underground reservoirs in Kodak Park. Deionized water is the next highest grade of water Kodak generates. This grade is primarily utilized as boiler feed. That water which is used in product applications requires further purification to meet specific needs. One example is de-aerated water which has excess carbon dioxide removed.
Use of high-purity water is increasingly a part of the company's quality programs directed at many phases of manufacturing. High quality water helps to ensure product quality and reduce waste, as reflected in lower chemical, energy, and human resource needs. Control of raw or finished chemical quality is an important factor in controlling process/product variability. For a number of years, Kodak has had aggressive quality programs in place for incoming chemicals including supply water. The use of high-purity water is particularly important for the manufacture of products in areas such as clinical, electronics, biotechnology, film, and paper products. Kodak Park has a number of high-purity water systems. Additional capacity is being built to expand these systems to provide uniform quality water throughout the site.
Water quality requirements vary from product to product. For example, micro-electronics applications are particularly demanding with respect to the level of contaminants, such as particulates, microorganisms and dissolved solids, etc. Products which are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration must meet well-established guidelines. Film and paper manufacture are obviously affected by a number of parameters which would affect sensitometry or cause biodegradation. In each case, in-house specifications have been developed for contaminants of concern, and these are regularly monitored.
Water intake is closely monitored at Kodak Park. As temperature and turbidity of inflow are measured and recorded over time, a history can be developed. This serves as a guide to assist researchers in predicting the condition of inflow due to seasonal variation. This is especially important concerning changes in lake temperature which can cause major problems if not detected. As the lake temperature rises, so does the presence and concentration of certain contaminants. To better evaluate fluctuations in temperature and turbidity, Kodak chose to consult outside expertise. A study, jointly sponsored by the Rochester Industrial Management Council, New York Sea Grant and SUNY- Buffalo, examined analytical data of inflow water at Kodak Park and other water treatment plants. This information assists assessment of incoming water quality so that operating parameters can be adjusted to accommodate quality changes. This procedure translates into more uniform quality water as a supply to downstream operations including high-purity water systems.
Access to Great Lakes water provides a distinct competitive advantage for Kodak. For example, costs are reduced as a result of decreased maintenance and downtime where a high quality source supply is available. Overall waste is reduced as a result of more uniform process and product characteristics. Water from other sources may have higher dissolved solids and turbidity levels. These characteristics would have a significant impact on initial treatment costs, especially for high-purity water systems. Also, increased fouling or corrosion of equipment is possible with non-Great Lakes water. Kodak water treatment officials estimate that without access to Great Lakes water, treatment costs could be several times current levels.
A long list of treatment options is available at Kodak Park in the many water systems in place throughout the company's operations. This list, in fact, reads like a water treatment vendors catalog, including options such as filtration, chlorination, pH control, carbon treatment, softening, deionization, ultraviolet sterilization and reverse osmosis. The particular system design and components chosen are adapted to the individual user's needs. Treatment of wastewater generated at Kodak Park complements the process for inflow water. On average, 30 million gallons of water are routed to Kodak's Kings Landing Plant, one of the most sophisticated wastewater treatment facilities in the country. The treatment process involves separation of non-water soluble materials in a settling operation and a secondary chemical neutralization and biological degradation process.
The Eastman Kodak Company's Kodak Park operation uses vast quantities of Lake Ontario water for its diverse manufacturing operations. Raw water treatment is geared to specific product applications but the high quality of Great Lakes water has kept treatment costs reasonable and has enhanced manufacturing quality control. Grace Wever, an official with Kodak, summarizes the role Lake Ontario water plays at Kodak Park: "The company has built its reputation on the quality of its products, which are, in turn, dependent on the uniform quality of the finished chemicals including water used in their manufacture. High quality source/supply water is also important to control manufacturing process uniformity. The abundance and high quality of Great Lakes water is therefore essential to virtually all of our Rochester manufacturing operations."
Headquarters: Etobicoke, Ontario
Total Employees: 500
Total Sales (1991): $296 million
Product Areas: Glucose, high fructose corn syrup, cornstarch, corn gluten meal and refined corn oil
Casco Company is the largest corn refiner in Canada. The company's major corn refining operations are based at Cardinal, Ontario on the north bank of the St. Lawrence River. Grain processing by Casco has been ongoing at this location since 1858. The principal products are corn sweeteners and corn starch along with oil and meal. Demand for corn sweeteners has been increasing over the past decade as soft-drink beverage manufacturers shift to fructose syrups. New uses for cornstarch (e.g., incorporation in plastics to facilitate biodegradation, controlled-release encapsulation, and use in the expanding paper industry) have increased demand for cornstarch as well. In response to these developments, Casco has recently expanded and upgraded its refinery at Cardinal with state-of-the-art technology.
Corn refining is a water-intensive process and, for this reason, the St. Lawrence River is a critical part of the Cardinal operation. With the start-up of the new refinery in 1989, Casco processes 45,000 bushels of corn a day using up to 5 million imperial gallons of river water each day. Cooling is the principal use of the water resulting in variable seasonal usage levels - 5 mgd in the summer compared with 3 mgd in the winter. Approximately 10 percent of water used is not returned to the river. Evaporation accounts for most of the consumptive use. Another 10 percent of water used at the plant is for process purposes. Treatment of this water entails filtration and chlorination for bacteria control.
According to Casco officials, the availability of St. Lawrence water is "extremely important" to the company for conducting its business at Cardinal, Ontario. Plant environmental superintendent, John Trayner, indicates that "the relative purity of the water and, in particular, its consistent temperature range gives the facility a competitive advantage over other locations with less suitable water supplies."
Casco recognizes its responsibilities as a major industrial user of St. Lawrence water. Appropriate treatment of its discharge water is a high priority. In 1988 the company upgraded its water treatment facility, substantially improving the quality of effluent at its three river outfalls. Casco's concern about water quality for both intake and effluent is reflected at the local, provincial and national levels in Canada. The Saint Lawrence River is an important commercial navigation and industrial asset; protection of its environment is also becoming a major public policy goal.
Issues of water supply and demand for industry are getting more attention. As the North American industrial economy was developing, water supplies for most uses were generally adequate. Manufacturing facilities that required large volumes of water had numerous river, lake and reservoir locations available to them. Groundwater sources were also widely available. "All come, all served" could have been an apt description for our past water heyday. The relocation of certain manufacturing operations out of the traditional industrial heartland, a parallel population shift and high growth rates for business enterprises in the "new" regions, all combined to decentralize water use by industry. Burgeoning agricultural demand for irrigation and continued growth in municipal demand, particularly in areas where freshwater supplies are limited, has placed new constraints on water availability for industry use. Increasing water pollution levels have also interfered with industry's use of water, forcing a tremendous increase in recycling within plants and also increasing treatment costs.
Industry water demand varies widely across the spectrum of manufacturing operations, and quality requirements are also different depending on the purpose for which the water is to be used. The Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River represent a vast supply of good quality fresh water suitable for many high value manufacturing processes. With other areas of the U.S. experiencing increasing water supply problems, allocation among competing users and mandatory conservation programs may redirect economic growth toward the Great Lakes region and its world-class, high quality water supply.
Industry water quality experts have identified certain characteristics of Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River water that make it desirable for many industrial uses. The low total dissolved solids, turbidity, silica, and organic content, color, and high alkalinity (good buffering capability) are the main characteristics of Great Lakes water that provide a cost advantage to the manufacturing sector dependent on high quality source water. Water with low overall hardness results in less stress on "downstream" purification systems and distribution systems. Water with low turbidity characteristics translates into fewer problems in filtration, disinfection, and distribution systems. Corrosion control is easier with good source water. Dissolved solids, although generally in the low range for Great Lakes water, indicate a gradual concentration from west to east or from Lake Superior to Lake Ontario. Calcium and magnesium, the most abundant chemical constituents of Great Lakes water, are widely available in the Basin bedrock and overlying sediments, especially limestone. Calcium and magnesium affect water hardness and scale formation but also provide an invaluable buffering mechanism for acid discharge/deposition into the Lakes. The assimilative capacity of the individual Lakes combined with their natural background chemical composition and the input of nutrients, toxic contaminants and other materials all play a role in the condition of Great Lakes water quality.
Lake Superior, with its large volume, lower temperatures and small basin population, is the purest of the Lakes. This largest of the Great Lakes is also lowest in suspended solids and organic material. It's relatively pristine nature and particular susceptibility to degradation by persistent toxics has made it a focus of targeted clean water initiatives. Following an International Joint Commission recommendation in 1991 that Lake Superior be a "zero discharge" demonstration zone, the four Lake Basin jurisdictions, (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ontario) along with the U.S. and Canadian federal governments, agreed to cooperate on a Lake Superior Zero Discharge Demonstration Program. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ambitious "Pollution Prevention Action Plan for the Great Lakes" has a strong Lake Superior component. Industry's role in the Lake Superior effort will have appropriate emphasis on solutions and potential for technology transfer that can serve as a model for other water users in the Great Lakes Basin.
Future Great Lakes industry water users will need to give equal attention to intake water and effluent requirements recognizing that "what goes out also comes in." For industry in the Great Lakes Basin, access to high quality water carries with it a responsibility to protect it from degradation. As effective pollution control and prevention strategies are put in place for protection of Great Lakes water, the region will gain through a better environment for its residents and a more useful natural resource for its economy.
The fastest growing areas in the country, California, Nevada, Florida, Arizona and Texas, are also those places where adequate water supply has become a pressing problem. The worst drought in California history during the last half of the 1980s resulted in myriad water conservation measures intended to cope with the serious water shortage. Projections of demand indicate that in twenty years California will face a fresh water shortfall of four to six million acre feet. In 1991, the San Francisco Bay Area Economic Forum, representing area industry water users, including computer and semiconductor companies, called for a regulated, market-based water allocation system similar to that of utilities which distribute electricity and natural gas. The organization said that economic growth was threatened by policies that have undermined water availability and quality. The California situation is likely to repeat itself throughout the water-short areas of the country. The Great Lakes region has a double appeal to industry water users elsewhere: the supply is here along with the quality.
Although all business and industry benefit from good quality water, particular users have special requirements and these manufacturers represent a business attraction potential to be tapped. Location decision making for business and industry is a complex process where requirements are matched with site characteristics. Manufacturing plants, headquarter operations and research and development facilities often entail significant employment and other economic impacts for locales. As a result, firm recruitment by local and state governments has been an important part of economic development and promotion strategies. Attention to water needs has long been a business recruitment lure in areas where water supply is anchored by a developed water source such a reservoir or canal.
Places where water is not naturally available know that the issue is a salient one. In the Great Lakes Basin, water supply is self-evident and perhaps for this reason it is not generally part of the recruitment effort. But now, a new strategy is possible, one that addresses water from both a supply and quality standpoint. For example, in Toledo, Ohio, the port authority, the Chamber of Commerce and county officials are cooperatively promoting that area's access to Great Lakes water and are focusing their efforts on specific users, particularly the food processing and beverage industries. Targeted efforts for manufacturing operations that need good quality water should be developed. Detailed water quality data should become part of the "promotion packet." This new perspective on industry water use and related quality requirements can be a boon to business promotion and attraction efforts as one of the region's key locational assets in its economic future.
Access to abundant supplies of high quality water is a key to location, retention and expansion decisions for many sectors of business and industry. The Great Lakes region offers a commanding competitive advantage in this area, and its "liquid asset" - the greatest supply of fresh water in the world - can and should be a centerpiece for promoting regional economic development. A surprisingly large part of Great Lakes industry requires high standards of water quality for their manufacturing processes; quantity alone is not sufficient. Thus, public policies and private sector development decisions must provide for the preservation and protection of water quality in the spirit of sustainable development.
The Great Lakes - St. Lawrence region has more than one-fifth of the world's fresh surface water. This natural asset was a pivotal factor in guiding settlement and the early establishment of an industrial base. With manufacturing a prominent part of the binational regional economy, industry use of water is more intensive in Ontario and the Great Lakes states than in Canada or the U.S. as a whole. Most industrial water demand within the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basins is met by these two large water bodies.
Water use by industry has been declining because of changes in production levels for particular products, technological changes in manufacturing processes, cost reduction efforts and compliance with environmental regulations which have resulted in a dramatic increase in water recycling. The need for a high level of water quality among many industrial users is more important than ever as water reuse levels increase and manufacturing processes and products become more advanced.
Liquid Asset: Great Lakes Water Quality and Industry Needs profiles four manufacturing operations along with a sport fishery case study in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basins. These examples show how particular uses of the region's major water resources have developed and why a high level of water quality is important for those activities. Certain characteristics of Great Lakes and St. Lawrence water, such as lower dissolved solids, turbidity, silica, organic content and good buffering capability translate into a cost advantage for those industry activities that need access to high quality water. As an important economic development factor and an unparalleled natural resource asset, Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River water deserves recognition for its contribution to the region's quality of life. The region must promote its water advantage, a truly magnificent asset.
The Center for the Great Lakes, "A Competitive Edge - Lakes Water a Plus for Industry", The Great Lakes Reporter. January/February 1989
David, Elizabeth L. "Manufacturing and Mining Water Use in the United States 1954-83", National Water Summary 1987. U.S. Geological Survey. 1990.
Gibbons, Diana C. The Economic Value of Water. Resources for the Future. Washington, D.C. 1986.
Great Lakes Basin Commission, Great Lakes Basin Framework Study, Appendix 4, Limnology and Embayments; Appendix 6, Water Supply - Municipal, Industrial, Rural; Appendix 7, Water Quality, Ann Arbor. 1976.
Great Lakes Commission, Great Lakes Water Use Data Base Repository (1988, 1989 and 1990 Data). Ann Arbor.
International Joint Commission, Sixth Biennial Report on Great Lakes Water Quality. Windsor. 1992.
National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Water Quality Criteria 1972. Washington, D.C. 1973.
National Commission on Water Quality, Report of the Staff. April, 1976.
Solley, Wayne B., Charles F. Merk and Robert R. Pierce. "Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1985." U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1004, 1988.
Stewart, Robert H. "Water Quality Requirements for General Manufacturing," Journal, American Water Works Association. February, 1975.
Tate, D.M. and D.N. Scharf. Water Use in Canadian Industry, 1986, Social Science Series No. 24, Ecosystem Sciences and Evaluation Directorate, Environment Canada. Ottawa. 1992.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Water Quality Inventory - 1988 Report to Congress. April, 1990.
U.S. General Accounting Office, Water Resources and the Nation's Water Supply - Issues and Concerns. April, 1979.
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Mr. William Brah, President
The Center for the Great Lakes
Mr. Robert Kovach, Executive Director
Indiana Department of Commerce
Mr. Ron Van Til, Water Use Analyst
Michigan Department of Natural Resources
Dr. Gary E. Glass, Senior Research Chemist
EPA-Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth
Dr. Grace Wever, Manager, State and Local Government Relations
Eastman Kodak Company
Dr. Jeff Busch, Executive Director
Lake Erie Office, State of Ohio
Mr. Ted Chudleigh, Executive Vice President
Ontario Food Processors Assoc.
Mr. Michael Ireland, Industrial Development Director
Sarnia Lambton Economic Development Commission
Mr. Joseph K. Hoffman, Assistant Director
Bureau of Water Resources Management
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources
Mr. Charles R. Ledin, Chief
Water Resources Planning
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources