Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Commerce: Safety, Energy and Environmental Implications of Modal Shifts

Jun 1993 | Economy and Transportation, Energy, Library, Maritime, Water Quality

The Great Lakes Commission has undertaken a “modal shift” study for the Great Lakes – St. Lawrence River commercial navigation system.  Through a method of shifting selected waterborne commodity movements to alternative surface modes, the study was designed to assess the comparative energy usage, emission impacts and safety risks of one transportation mode in relation to others.


Download PDF | Published June 1993